I came across an enlightening article in The Journal of Applied Laboratory Medicine, published by the Oxford University Press.
I recommend reading the article, which opens:
The term P4 medicine (predictive, preventative, personalized, participatory) was coined by Dr. Leroy Hood of the Institute for Systems Biology to demonstrate his framework to detect and prevent disease through extensive biomarker testing, close monitoring, deep statistical analysis, and patient health coaching. . . . Using this study as a basis, we here analyze the Hippocratic roots and the advantages and disadvantages of P4 medicine. We introduce O4 medicine (overtesting, overdiagnosis, overtreatment, overcharging) as a counterpoint to P4 medicine to highlight the drawbacks, including possible harms and cost.
This “O4” model is unfortunately far too prevalent, even in primary care.
I think the article is easy to read, and I believe you will find it of value.